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-60-90/13 (-50-2)

 

 

 

 

1979

 

 

:

____________________ ..

8 1978 .



-60-90/13 (-50-2)

1979

.. ..

-60-90/13 (-50-2) , , , , ( -1) .

:

...

...

...

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

/

/2

t

t1

W 3/

F, 2

60

75

402

90

535

20

8000

3000

( , t, t1, W, F)

,

 

60

50

50

50

 

= 13 /2

165

140

0

230

 

= 1,2 /2

115

100

160

0

 

D, /

390,6

324

244

358,5

 

*

384,6

322,5

240

355

 

t.,

232

223

214

228

 

*

236,2

231,2

222,6

234

 

d, /(×)

6,51

6,48

4,88

7,17

 

*

6,41

6,45

4,80

7,10

 

ad, %

-1,54

-0,46

-1,64

-0,98

 

* , .

:

...

...

...

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

( , )

-2

,

20

29,5

40

50

55

60

, ,

0,367

0,390

0,404

0,414

0,444

0,450

= 10 . .,

,

19,633

29,110

39,596

49,586

54,556

59,550

, /

54,7

74,299

96,38

117,41

127,925

139,64

, /

/

54,84

74,439

96,52

117,55

128,065

139,78

, /

Q¢ = 14,24 + 2,068 +0,04 ( - 29,1) + 0,237 ( - 54,56)

(%) 1 . .

,

20

30

40

50

60

0,109

0,079

0,062

0,051

0,043


-1

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

-60-90/13


-2

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

( , )

 

-3

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

( , )

 

-4

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

( , )

 

-5

-60-90/13 (-50-2)


( , )

 

-6

-60-90/13 (-50-2)


( , )

 

-7

-60-90/13 (-50-2)


( , )

 

-8

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

( )

)

)

 

-8

( )

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

) 4

) 6 5

)

 

-8

( )

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

)

 

-8

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

)

 

-8

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

)

)

)

 

-9

-60-90/13 (-50-2)


( )

 

-10

-60-90/13 (-50-2)


( )

 

-11

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

 

-12

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

 

-13

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

 

-14

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

 

-15

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

 

-16

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

. = -

 

-17

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

 

-18

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

 

-19

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

 

-20

-60-90/13 (-50-2)


-21

-60-90/13 (-50-2)


-22

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

7
( )

 

-23

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

 

-24

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

 

-25

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

 

-26

-60-90/13 (-50-2)


-27

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

: i = i¢ + D + D.

 

-27

-60-90/13 (-50-2)


-28

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

 

-29

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

2, 3 4

 

-30

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

 

-31

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

)

 

-31

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

)

 

-31

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

) ( )

 

-31

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

 

-32

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

 

-32

-60-90/13 (-50-2)


-33

-60-90/13 (-50-2)


-34

50--4 (F = 3000 2)

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

,

 

-34

50--4 (F = 3000 2)

-60-90/13 (-50-2)


-35

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

 

-36

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

( )

 

-37

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

( - )


-38

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

)

)


7-39

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

(Q + Q) ( )

: = 90 /2, t = 535 , = 13 /2, = 1,2 /2, 2 = 0,05 /2, G. = D, t. - -21, = 100 /, = 100 /, i - -14, i - -27

--- - .


-39

-60-90/13 (-50-2)

( - )

--- - .


I

-60-90/13 ( )

: = 90 /2, t = 535 , = 13 /2, = 1,2 /2, 2 = 0,05 /2, G. = D, t. - -21, = 100 /, = 100 /

II

-60-90/13 ( II)

: = 90 /2, t = 535 , = 13 /2, = 0,05 /2, G. = D, t. - -21, = 100 /;


III

N

I. DN ( D < 225 / . I II)

II. DNt

III. DN

I II. DN I D > 225 / - . D < 225 / ( ) DN II t = 535 - 0,45 ( - 90).

III IV.

1. .

2. 13 /2, V - - . > 13 /2, :

) < 13 /2 DN ( III) ;

) > 13 /2: > . DN , ; < . .

3. < 13 /2, :

) < 13 /2 DN ;

) ³ 13 /2, .

IV. DN

IV VI. 1,2 /2, IV . , , , , VI .

> , IV . < , IV .

V.

VI.

III

6 /2

IV

I.

, :

- = 90 /2*;

* .

- t = 535 ;

- = 13 /2;

- = 1,2 /2;

- ( -20 -28);

- ;

- 2 = 005 /2; (W = 8000 3/ = 20 ) 50--4 ( -34);

- , -50 6 /2 1,8; 0,7 0,45 /;

- , 6 /2 III ; 30 II ;

- ;

G. = D;

- -7, -21 -29;

- - 5,3 /;

- 100 / 3;

- ( ) - -33; ; 560 ;

- -60-2 , cos j = 0,8.

( , 1969).

II.

1. -60-90/13 :

- 2 = 0,05 /2 ( -2)

Q = 13,44 + 2,063N + 0,04 (N - 29,5) + 0,24(N - 55) /; (1)

- (W = 8000 3/) ( = 20 ) ( -3)

Q = 11,17 + 2,119 N + 0,055 (N - 29,8) + 0,26(N - 54,5) /. (2)

, , -7.

50--4, -34, .

D2 = 0,65D + 13 /. (3)

(N) -35,

0,77×D /. (4)

( -8). . .

2. -60-90/13 2 = 0,05 /2 :

- , , - 10 . .;

- - 8000 3/, - 8300 3/;

- - 86 %;

- - 95 %;

- , 0,14 / (0,1 % );

- : , , 2, , , 3 % . (, ) .

:

Q¢ = 14,24 + 2,068 + 0,04 ( - 29,1) + 0,237( - 54,56) /. (5)

, , (10 . .), , .

:

= 50

. = 20 . .:

1) (5) . = 10 . .

Q¢ = 118,476 /;

2)

lQ¢ = 10×0,051 = 0,51 %;

3) . = 20 . .

(Q¢) = Q¢ (1 + ) = 118,476(1 + ) = 119,08 /.

III.

-60-90/13 :

- 2 = 0,05 /2 ( -9)

Q = 21,22 + 1,896N + 0,098 (N - 31) + 0,324 (N - 54,4) /; (6)

- (W = 8000 3/) ( = 20 ) ( -10)

Q = 19,01 + 1,955 N + 0,107 (N - 31,2) + 0,331 (N - 53,84) /. (7)

IV.

-60-90/13 I -60-90/13 ( ), II - -60-90/13 ( II). .

, III , .

(N, D, D, , ) . , :

Q = Q - Q - Q ; (8)

q = ×103 /(×), (9)

Q -

Q = D (i - 100)×103 /; (10)

Q -

Q = D(i - 100)×103 /. (10)

i -14.

i -27.

i = i¢ + , /, (11)

i¢ - i = 730 / ;

- i¢ i 730 /.

= 13 /2 -27.

1,2 /2 i -27.

, ,

N. = (Q + Q)×10-3 , (12)

- , (×)/ ( -36 -37).

,

N = N - N . (13)

-39.

V.

( -1) , . .

-60-90/13 6 /2.

- - .

III 6 /2. ( I II). , -30 D = 0.

(D) , , = ().

VI. ,

1. .

: N = 50 , 2 = 0,06 /2. - .

. 1 .

1

1

2

3

4

5

2 = 0,05 /2

Q

/

(1) -2

117,41

2 = 0,05 /2

D

/

-2

193,23

/

0,77×D

148,8

N 0,05 /2

DN2

-35

-0,42

0,05 /2

/

-[(2,063 + 0,04) DN2]

0,883

q

/(×)

×103

2366

2. ( ).

, , .

: N = 50 , D = 100 /, = 16 /2, D = 50 /; = 1,6 /2, 2 = 0,06 /2.

- , - .

. 2 .

2

1

2

3

4

5

D¢

/

I

276

/

I

112,3

/

- D

62,3

N 13 /2

DN

III

-2,60

N 1,2 /2

DN

III

-1,25

N 2 0,05 /2

DN2

-35

-0,45

N - (DN + DN + DN2)

54,30

D

/

I ( )

290,65

/

I

123,4

/

-30

147,3

D,

(×)/

-36

223,5

D,

(×)/

-37, -38

( + D)

455,9

i

/

-14

733,1

i

/

-27

(i + D i)

639,7

Q

/

10

63,31

Q

/

10

26,985

,

N

12

26,452

,

N

N - N

23,548

D = 290,65 / = 16 /2

/

-22

238,4

Q

/

D(i - )×10-3

i = 830,1 /

171,978

Q

/

Q - Q - Q

81,683

q

/(×)

×10-3

1634

, N, Q, Q - :

1) D¢ D¢

D = /; D = /,

(i - 100) (i - 100) 620 530 /;

2) D¢, D¢, N D¢ ( I);

3) III ;

4) = N - (DN + DN) D¢, D¢ D²;

5) D² i, i D D;

6) D, D D.

. 2 ( Q, Q q).

VII.

, :

 

-

N

-

- ()

-

-

-

N

-

N

SD

D

D

, /:

 

-

D

-

D

-

D

-

-

-

,

-

,

-

-

-

-

D2

G

4

G.4

W

, /2

 

- ( )

-

, , , ,

-

.

-

I, II, PIV, PV

-

-

- ( )

2

(), (/):

 

-

to, io

-

i

-

i

-

t.,

-

T 5, T 6, T 7

-

to. 2, to. 3, to. 4

- ,

, , ,

-

,

-

dt

-

D

, /:

 

-

Qo

-

Q

- ,

Q¢

- , /

Q

- , /

Q

- , /(×)

q

- , %

hoi

- , %

h

- , , . .

- , (×)/

,

 

 

 






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, , .
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